Roof Over

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Jamil Hudson and Brian Falls sent in this write-up and photos of something Charlotte Fire Department (NC) Engine 11 B shift recently came across during an area survey of their first due. Construction crews were in the process of remodeling both the interior and exterior of the home when E-11 noticed an obvious change of the roof structure. They stopped and spoke with a construction crew member to ask for permission to take some photos. As you can see in the photos, a second roof is being built on top of the existing roof. This construction practice is becoming increasingly popular today to modify older homes in order to reduce the costs for the homeowner or seller and to give the home a more modern and appealing look. The original roof was built on a 4/12 pitch and the newly added roof was built on an 8/12 pitch. There are several reasons why this type of roof construction can have a negative impact during normal fire ground operations. These are a few examples:

  • A false indication of possibly a second floor or an additional room despite the small window (Size-up)
  • Truck Co. operations (Vertical Ventilation) efforts may be hindered or delayed due to the double roof.
  • Initial vertical ventilation could be ineffective for interior crews during fire attack and search operations if the fire has not vented through the original roof.
  • Difficulty in locating and extinguishing hidden fire in void spaces. (Overhaul)
  • Confusion between interior crews and the outside vent crew when attempting coordinated efforts (fire attack and vertical ventilation).

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In addition, keep in mind the dimensions of lumber used, the type of roof construction and how it varies from the 1950’s to today. This particular home, the original roof joists were constructed of 2×6’s, while the new roof addition is light weight construction composed of 2×4’s. If fire has progressed rapidly, has vented itself through the original roof but has not shown itself from the new roof addition and has been burning for an extensive amount of time, what is the possibility of a collapse? If so, which of the two roof types may pose a danger of collapse, both, or maybe one before the other? What other issues could occur during a fire if this house is in your first due?

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It is imperative as the individual fire fighter and as a company, we continue to be familiar with our response areas. Learning and knowing our territories and our buildings, from the single family dwellings, the large commercial/industrial buildings, to the high rises, etc. Building construction is ever changing, when the bell sounds at 3:00 am, the everyday house fire may just be the one fire that has us scratching our heads afterwards.

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FireHouse Expo 2014

VentEnterSearch’s own Jimm Walsh will be presenting at FireHouse Expo on Thursday, July 17, 2014 in Baltimore (MD.) Jimm will have the pleasure of co-presenting a class titled Smell of Smoke with District Chief Walter Lewis from Orlando (FL) FD.

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Here is a short description of the class:

Commonly, dispatched structure fires turn out to be an odor of smoke called in by a homeowner or occupant. This program is designed to help firefighters, prospective officers or inexperienced officers determine the cause from a laundry-list of potential sources by discussing a decision-making tactic and the various sources, room-by-room in residential structures.

We’ll be in room 318 on Thursday July 17th from 08:30-10:00. We hope to see you there.

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Multi-Function Prop

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Christopher Benson from Greeley (CO) Engine 4 sent in this low cost multi-function prop. The prop is made mostly from 4×4 and 2×4 lumber that was scavenged from around the station. The prop features a forcible entry door, window bar props, a window sash, and a wall section.

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The door can be forced as an inward or outward facing door. It also features a padlock and hasp to practice defeating them as well. One of the window door props is just for observation and discussion of bars and their attachment methods, and the other can actually be forced by defeating pieces of furring strips. (Chris wanted to be sure to thank Brian Brush from West Metro (CO) for the window prop idea.) The window sash has a replaceable piece of wood as the sash so it can be defeated prior to the entering the window.

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Below that, the wall studs are placed 16 inch on center to practice SCBA low profile maneuvers. The rope simulates an entanglement from electrical wires and adds to learning opportunities. Real segments of electrical wire can also be strung through the prop to allow for cutting of the wire as an option to free from the entanglement. Since most of the materials were scavenged, this low cost prop can provide a number of different quick drills without even leaving the firehouse.

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Fortified Rear Door

Lieutenant Rich Taylor and the Crew from Winter Park (FL) Truck 61 found this door while out doing some area familiarization. From the outside this particular door shows no sign of supplemental locks. At one point there was a traditional handle, but that has since been removed and replaced with a blank. The latch is also being “protected” from a simple latch guard. It appears that a simple force with the irons would make quick work of this. This particular occupancy was a bakery, so not exactly a high profile target, or occupancy that you would expect to be highly protected. However, as you can see from the inside, nice little surprise awaits you.

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How well do you know your first due? Before this occupancy was a bakery, what was it? Perhaps some of the long time readers of the site recognize this exact door it was featured in a previous post back in November 2006 click here to check it out. However, it was a check-cashing store back then. Certainly an occupancy with that amount of cash on hand would certainly warrant having a fortified rear door.

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There is something very different about the door from the original post though… Take a look, have you figured it out? The answer will be in the first comment below so we don’t spoil it here.

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Secondary Functions

In some of our recent posts we have been sharing thoughts on the benefit of riding assignments. Part 1 of the post can be found here and part 2 can be found here.

We will now continue the discussion and introduce the concepts of secondary functions and discuss how they can be utilized to increase your efficiency and effectiveness on the fireground.

The inside team’s primary functions are forcible entry, primary search, locating and confining the fire. After the fire is knocked down and the primary functions are complete, the inside team begins to switch its focus to salvage and overhaul.

The outside team’s duties vary greatly depending on the structure and scenario at hand. On residential structures, the outside team’s priority is going to be coming off the truck thinking VES until proven that all people are out of the fire building. If there is a sign of someone home or someone outside informing us that people are trapped then VES needs to be performed. If VES is not going to be a tactic used then the outside team moves down the “ prioritization list” of functions. As mentioned earlier, the prioritization list also changes based on the structure. For example, on a residential structure VES is the main priority whereas on a commercial structure Roof OPS are the priority. Obviously the “priority” tactic may be different for each department.

Once the outside team’s primary functions of VES, Secondary Egress, Ground Ladders, Roof OPS, Aerial OPS, and OVM (Outside Vent Man) are complete they will begin to transition to more “inside” duties. Regardless of where they are operating they will still maintain the radio designation of “outside truck”. Depending on timing, if the secondary search has not already been completed, the outside team will immediately perform the secondary search. Once all searches are clear and the primary functions are completed, the outside team will also transition into salvage and overhaul duties and assist the inside team. During the salvage and overhaul operation, the outside team sets up interior lighting, establish PPV fans if needed, and begins to monitor the interior air quality.

We understand that some of the specific functions listed might not apply to your situation due to staffing or departmental buy-in. The idea here is to simply “list” all of the main functions of your truck crew and come up with some sense of prioritization for them. Obviously these won’t work for every scenario and on every structure. Some situations may need all of the tasks done “at once” which will not allow for one crew to work down the list. The idea behind listing them out and prioritizing them is so everyone operating knows what to expect, and what jobs still need to be accomplished. Simply listing riding assignments down in some SOG, or posting them on a station board is not enough. Train until every member of your department is knowledgeable and proficient in relying on riding assignments.

Officer (Inside Truck 61): Radio designation of Truck 61

  • Primary Functions: Forcible Entry, Primary Search, Locating the fire
  • Secondary Functions: Overhaul
  • Tools Carried: TIC (Thermal Image Camera), Hook, Halligan, Flashlight, or any other tools needed to accomplish task
  • In large area buildings, i.e. large commercial space, consider large area search rope kit

Firefighter (Inside Truck 61): When working away from Truck 61’s Officer, radio designation becomes Truck 61 Irons

  • Primary Functions: Forcible Entry, Primary Search, Locating and confining the fire (water can and/or closing fire room door)
  • Secondary Functions: Overhaul
  • Tools Carried: Irons, Water Can, Hook, Thru-the-Lock (Commercial Structures), Flashlight, or any other tools needed to accomplish task
  • Thru-the-Lock tool on commercial structures, i.e. “A” or “K” tool for glass storefronts. Also consider the Hydro-RAM for apartments, college dorms, doctor offices, and hospitals

Driver (Outside Truck 61): When working on individual assignments, radio designation becomes Truck 61 Tractor

  • Primary Functions: VES (Vent Enter Search), Force Rear Door (Secondary Egress), Ground Ladder OPS (Secondary Egress), Roof OPS, Aerial OPS
  • Secondary Functions: Secondary Search, Salvage, Overhaul
  • Tools Carried for Primary Functions: TIC (Thermal Image Camera), 6 foot Hook, Halligan, Ground Ladder, Flashlight, Saw (Roof OPS)
    • Consider a Striking tool (i.e. PIG, Flat Head Axe, or Sledge) and Rotary Saw on commercial structures
    • Consider longer hook based on structure (Roof OPS or high ceilings)
  • Tools Carried for Secondary Functions: TIC (Thermal Image Camera), 6 foot Hook, Halligan, Flashlight, Salvage Tarps, Interior Lighting

Tillerman (Outside Truck 61): When working on individual assignments, radio designation becomes Truck 61 Tiller

  • Primary Functions: VES (Vent Enter Search), OVM (Outside Vent Man), Ground Ladder OPS (Secondary Egress), Report fire conditions in the rear, Roof OPS
  • Secondary Functions: Secondary Search, Salvage, Overhaul
  • Tools Carried for Primary Functions: TIC (Thermal Image Camera), 6 foot Hook, Halligan, Ground Ladder, Flashlight, Saw (Roof OPS)
    • Consider 55” Halligan Bar and Rotary Saw on commercial structures
    • Consider longer hook based on structure (Roof OPS or high ceilings)
  • Tools Carried for Secondary Functions: TIC (Thermal Image Camera), 6 foot Hook, Halligan, Flashlight, Salvage Tarps, PPV Fans, Gas Monitor

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Vent Enter Search Podcast

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VentEnterSearch’s own Jimm Walsh had the pleasure of being the guest on a recent FireFighterToolBox.com podcast. The host, David J. Soler, asks Jimm about the particulars of the Vent Enter Search tactic, click here to hear the episode.

Some of the topics covered include:

Why do Vent Enter Search?
When do we do a Vent Enter Search?
How do we do a VES?
When & how to take a window?
Scenarios – Tactics & Strategies

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Two Team Concept

In our last post we started talking about the benefits of riding assignments. We will now continue the discussion by highlighting some specific riding assignments of the truck company and discuss the team concept.

Before we get into the specifics, its important to layout the team concept. Truck functions have a very clear way of being “divided.” There are those that occur mostly inside the structure, and those that occur mostly outside. These functions are simply titled inside functions and outside functions. When using this thought process for riding assignments it can be stated as inside team and outside team. This is by no means is saying that the outside team never goes inside; it’s just a clear-cut way to distinguish or categorize their primary functions on the fireground.

Below is a sample way to layout and assign the basic truck company functions utilizing the team concept:

Inside Team Members

  • Officer
  • Right Jump

Inside Team Responsibilities

  • Forcible entry
  • Search
    • Victims
    • Fire
  • Interior vent
  • Opening up (Overhaul)

Inside Team Tool Assignments

  • Officer
    • Radio
    • TIC
    • Hook
    • Light
  • Right Jump
    • Halligan
    • 8 pound flathead axe/PIG
    • Hook
    • Can

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Outside Team Members

  • Driver
  • Left Jump / Tillerman

Outside Team Responsibilities

  • Ventilation
  • Utilities
  • Secondary egress
  • Aerial ops
  • VentEnterSearch

Outside Team Tool Assignments

  • Driver
    • Hook
    • Halligan
    • Cut sledge
    • Ladder
  • Left Jump/ Tillerman
    • Hook
    • Halligan
    • Axe/sledge
    • Ladder/saw

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One thing worth mentioning is that a radio and light show up only under the officers tool assignments. EVERYONE ON THE FIREGROUND SHOULD HAVE A RADIO AND TWO LIGHTS…. The only reason why they are specifically mentioned under the officer is because they are some of his main tools of getting his particular functions accomplished.

The tool assignment portion of this should not be used to prevent people from carrying extra (personal) tools. In the above photos you will see different tools than what’s listed on the tool assignment. Tool assignments can vary depending on fire conditions and building type. For example, the last photo shows a Firefighter with a tool compliment commonly used when assigned to the rear of a commercial building. The specifics are just mentioned because there has to be some level of expectations of what capabilities everyone has tool-wise. Just be cautious not to carry too much. Often times people think they need to carry a bunch of additional tools. A well-trained truck crew can actually get more accomplished with a minimal set of tools since they will be able to operate quicker without being weighted down with unnecessary equipment. Some of the tool assignments may change depending on the type of structure and building construction, but we will get into that in more detail in the next post.

Obviously the assignments above are laid out for a four-person company. The assignments will have to be tweaked according to staffing. Each of the critical tasks listed still needs to be accomplished even if the truck company shows up with less than 4 people. The assignments can be shared with other units as needed, particularly when he department might not have a truck company or has a limited number of truck companies. In that case, these departments might assign some (or all) of the outside functions to an engine company or a two-person ambulance/medic crew (that are firefighters.) Or depending on response times, a department may choose to rely on that two-person medic crew to perform the inside functions allowing the limited staffed truck crew to focus only on outside.

Taking that limited crew scenario a bit further, if you have a limited staff truck crew that normally focuses on inside functions, and they announce on the radio that they are performing a VES, that should alert everyone else responding that the inside functions are not being handled at this time. This should trigger in everyone’s mind that “plan B” is in effect. Perhaps in this scenario, “plan B” might be to have the ambulance/medic crew now assume inside functions. So it goes without saying that the “plan B” should be thought out and trained on ahead of time as well.

The most important take-away about this is this: customize riding assignments for your specific needs (apparatus, staffing, equipment, building construction, response time, etc.) Break up the common fireground tasks in a logical easy to follow format and assign them to specific people (or seats) on each unit. Make sure that the expectations of assignment and tools are both reasonable and achievable. Riding assignments should not just be written down in some SOG just for the sake of saying that you have them. They need to be trained on, relied on, and utilized by everyone in order to be effective.

In our next post we will continue the discussion on riding assignments and even start breaking down the difference between primary and secondary priorities.

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Riding Assignments

Riding assignments are one of the simplest methods to increase your efficiency and effectiveness on the fireground. Riding assignments should be thought-out ahead of time, put in writing, trained on, used on every incident and on every apparatus. The utilization of riding assignments ensures that critical tasks are getting done in the most efficient way, at the most appropriate times, and helps minimize redundancy of efforts. In order to make riding assignments truly effective for your organization, they need to be customized for your specific needs (apparatus, staffing, equipment, building construction, response time, etc.)

Posting the riding assignments in a conspicuous place is helpful to remind everyone who’s assigned to each task, and even helps ensure that the assignments will be actually be used on the fireground.

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Pictured above is the riding assignment board for FDNY truck 45. It is a simple whiteboard (done up with some company pride) that list each assignment, and who is assigned for the tour.

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Pictured above are examples of apparatus mounted riding assignment placards. (The photos are from Bedford (VA) Ladder 1, the photos were taken a few years ago when the rig was on display at FDIC.) Mounting them on the apparatus, at the actual seat, is an excellent way for Volunteer departments in particular to utilize seat assignments. It reminds each member of their responsibilities since they may end up in different seats, or on different apparatus for each call. Another benefit is that the Officer can quickly look back while enroute and see how many members are on board, and what assignments will be covered, and more importantly what assignments still need to be considered.

In our next post we’ll get into the specifics of some riding assignments, and continue the discussion on their benefit. We will even get into the importance of tool storage as it relates to riding assignments.

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A Welcomed Butt

In today’s fire service we continually have to do more with less. As firefighters we have the mindset to improvise, adapt, and overcome problems we encounter. Unfortunately, we are now forced to accomplish this with fewer personnel on scene. To overcome this we need to look for clever ways to accomplish certain routine tasks. We often find ourselves having to throw ladders on concrete or similar slick surfaces and work off of them. How many videos have you seen where the ladder slips out from under a firefighter as they climb? Has it even happen to you? We all know no one wants to be the guy butting a ladder during a fire, and we certainly can’t afford to take someone away from performing more important tasks on the fireground. How about using the doormat found at the front door of a home? Yes the one that says “Welcome”! The doormat can be placed under the butt of your ladder allowing the ladder to grip the concrete better. These mats are commonly found at most doors leading into a home or commercial properties. Look for anything that may add some friction between the butts and the concrete. With less personnel on scene we need to be on the look out for things that will make us more efficient and finding a way to butt your own ladder is just one of them.

The nice thing about these types of options is that they still allow the ladder to be moved in a hurry when needed. There would be nothing worse then to see a brother or sister in trouble at a window and to be delayed by untying the ladder. Anything that can get the ladder raised quicker or moved quicker is a good thing!

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FDIC 2014

Just a reminder that VentEnterSearch’s own Jimm Walsh will be presenting his class titled Aggressive Truck Functions for a Safer Fireground at FDIC on Wednesday April 9 3:30-5:15pm Room 236-237 we hope to see you there.

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Here is a short description of the class:

Many people associate the term aggressive with unsafe, particularly when it comes to truck company functions. The fireground can actually be made safer through the timely execution of truck company functions. This presentation will stress the importance of aggressive truck functions on the fireground and their positive impact on fireground safety. Due to the limited staffing that most departments are currently facing, we must improve our efficiency on the fire ground. Many departments are cutting staffing or eliminating truck companies all together. Aggressive truck functions will allow everyone on the fireground to work in a safer and more efficient manner. This presentation will expand, and give valuable insight on the understanding of aggressive yet safe truck company skills, and the value of training. Class participants will gain valuable tips on how to increase the efficiently and effectiveness of their truck company functions. In addition, participants will better understand the necessity of truck company functions on every fire. Most importantly, participants will better understand how aggressive truck company functions can be utilized to create a safer fireground.

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Click the above banner to learn more about the upcoming class

 

 

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